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They would act as tutors of elite children rather than palace pages. 1203-12/1789-97), who, as a child, had been castrated by ʿĀdel Shah, the nephew of Nāder Shah, during the internecine conflicts over power at the end of the 18th century.

They would teach them reading and writing, a rudimentary knowledge of religious precepts, and elementary sciences. In spite of the Islamic laws which require the physical integrity of the ruler, Āḡā Moḥammad Khan was officially crowned shah in 1796.

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THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD According to Herodotus (8.105), the Persians, like other Oriental peoples, valued eunuchs highly for their trustworthiness. According to Xenophon, Cyrus the Great included eunuchs among his guards (Xenophon, 7.5.60-64). After the death of Petisakas his place at court was taken by Bagapates, who was charged with taking Cyrus’s body back to Persia (König, p. Later Hermotimus was sent from Sardis to the court of the Persian king, along with other gifts. In the list of courtiers of Šābuhr I, eunuchs are mentioned towards the end of the list (57th and 64th out of 67), with such officials as the treasurer (—“maître d’hôtel dans le gynécée” (Gignoux, p. There are indications that eunuchs were also appointed to other important positions in the royal household. By the late Sasanian era (5th and 6th centuries), eunuchs performed other official functions. 46) identifies him as personal eunuch (, Chicago, 1970. the anecdote about Muʿāwīa and a eunuch harem attendant in Masʿūdī, , VIII, pp. Kaʿb) and also Ṣaqlabī ones, but he states that all these were few in number compared with the Ḥabašīs and Sūdānīs (Jāḥeẓ I, pp. In the absence of specific information, it seems likely that the “Khorasanis” were actually Turks from the Central Asian steppes, since these were such a great source of slaves for the eastern part of the caliphate (for the slave traffic from Inner Asia and Eastern Europe into the Persian lands, see BARDA AND BARDADĀRĪ iii). Unfortunately, Sāvtigin’s place of origin is written in this source in an impossibly corrupt fashion; and Šaraf-al-Dīn Gerd-Bāzū (q.v.), who was much involved in the internecine warfare of Saljuq princes and their atabegs in the mid-6th/12th century (ibid., ed. Perhaps, as in the Ottoman system, the chief black eunuch in the post-1574 era acted as the personal tool of the (sultan’s mother) and the chief white eunuch as that of the sultan (Inalcik, p.

Ctesias and Xenophon date the appearance of eunuchs in Persia to the time of Cyrus the Great. The most influential eunuch under Cyrus was Petisakas, who was sent to bring the former Median ruler Astyages to the Persian king (König, pp. Gradually, he became the most esteemed of Xerxes’s eunuchs and was put in charge of the royal children (Herodotus, 8.103-5). Artaxerxes III marched on Egypt, one of the Persian commanders was Bagōas (q.v.), a powerful eunuch who soon became a king-maker. Several Egyptian inscriptions mention Atiyawahy, son of Artames, who was a “ means “eunuch,” Olmstead (p. Finally, there were the eunuch priests of the mother-goddess Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor, whose priests bore the Iranian title , Leiden, 1985. THE SASANIAN PERIOD In the Sasanian empire (224-651), the employment of eunuchs was quite common and was repeatedly mentioned in contemporary sources. 365-67), and on the seal of queen *Dēnag (Borisov and Lukonin, p. That this term means “eunuch” is confirmed by the Greek version of the trilingual ŠKZ inscription (cf. Where the actual castration (q.v.) took place is not clear, but it would be a reasonable assumption that this was done in the slave marts of the towns of Transoxania to which such slaves were brought. 86; more is known about the Ottoman palace system in which eunuchs seem to have enjoyed similar functions as in the Safavid court; see bibliography). From the onset of Safavid rule they served as the most private instruments the dynasty used to exercise personal power.

When Artaxerxes’s three sons contested the throne, eunuchs plotted on their behalf. Apparently, he was the Artaḫshar referred to in Babylonian documents as chief of the treasury during the reign of Darius II (Dandamayev, pp. Though all the eunuchs known to us except Hermotimus had Iranian names, we cannot be sure of their ethnic background since their names could have been changed. 9-17), in the trilingual inscription of Šābuhr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt (ŠKZ, Mid. He claims that very few were Africans; “black” referred to eunuchs who came from India, mostly from Malabar and the Gulf of Bengal.

Ctesias mentions the Paphlagonian eunuch Artoxares who helped Darius II rise to the throne and who later perished due to the intrigues of the queen Parysatis (König, pp. Schmidt believes that the beardless Persians and Medes depicted on the Persepolis stairway reliefs were eunuchs (p. A number of Apadāna (q.v.) and Treasury reliefs in Persepolis depict the king sitting with a man behind him in a bashlyk head-dress and holding a large towel. Each female member of the harem had at least two eunuchs in her service.

He was held in the greatest respect by everyone at court.You can relax in your room overlooking our vast Japanese garden. 【NEWS】Hotel Chinzanso Tokyo Joins Preferred Hotels & Resorts' LVX Collection 【Movie】Eat. We hope you will experience the best of Japanese hospitality. Naturally, the most common role of eunuchs was as guardians of the harems, and their most coveted position was that of s could reach in the crowded harems of Fatḥ ʿAlī Shah (q.v.; r.1211-50/1797-1834) and of Nāṣer-al-Dīn (q.v.; 1264-1313/1848-96). During Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s reign every first rank lady had three or four eunuchs at her service, second rank ladies had two or three eunuchs, while the shah had seven eunuchs at his disposal, both white and black (Moʿayyer-al-Mamālek, p. The origins of these eunuchs can be traced to two main periods.

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